Europe's impacts in infographics:

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Forestry and peatlands »

Shift of tree species composition European forests reinforces global warming

Global warming will change the tree species composition of European forests towards trees that store less carbon. This may turn these forests into a carbon source and thus reinforce global warming.

Agriculture and horticulture »

Global warming will increase wheat, rice and maize crop losses to insect pests

Crop yield losses to insect pests will increase globally with rising temperatures. Compared with the past, these losses increase by tens of percent for wheat, rice and maize crop at 2°C global warming

Forest fires »

Reaching the targets of the Paris Agreement will not prevent wildfire risk increase in Mediterranean Europe

Burned area over Mediterranean Europe may increase by 40-54% under 1.5°C global warming. Higher levels of global warming increase drought conditions that in turn lead to larger burned areas.

Coastal erosion and coastal floods »

How will different rates of sea-level rise determine the future of the Dutch, German and Danish Wadden Sea?

The future of the tidal flats of the Wadden Sea, a valuable nature reserve in the Northwest of Europe, depends on the rate of sea-level rise. This rate may increase so fast that the flats will drown.

Fresh water resources »

Latest results for the Danube confirm earlier findings: the rivers’ characteristics will change

Climate change may not affect annual discharge volumes that much. It may, however, significantly change a river’s discharge characteristics. This impacts droughts and floods.

Agriculture and horticulture »

Main challenge for Mediterranean region: to increase food production without depleting freshwater resources

Integrated strategies are needed to increase food production, focusing on both higher irrigation efficiency and higher crop yields of rain-fed cropland, whilst preserving valuable water resources.

Previously in ClimateChangePost


Landslides are responsible for ca. 14% of all casualties from natural hazards, on a global scale. Human activities may be more detrimental to future landslide incidence than climate change.

Will more intense heat waves increase mortality in Europe? Not necessarily. Data on temperature-related mortality in Stockholm, Sweden, show a decline of heat-related mortality over the last 100 years

What will be the impact of global warming on coastal flood risk if we do succeed in restricting warming at 2°C, following the Paris Agreement? Still high, unless we keep on raising the dikes.

A country’s national security may be negatively affected by climate change. This impact was expressed quantitatively. It turns out that climate security is highest in Europe, with Finland as number 1.

Expected changes in wind energy potential show a north-south division in Europe. In the next 30 years, wind power output will increase by 4%-8% in the North, and decrease up to 6%-12% in the South.

The 10% most extreme summer maximum temperatures in a 2°C warmer world cannot be reached when global warming is restricted at 1.5°C. This corresponds to the most extreme and severe heat waves.

Europe’s summer season starts earlier, by 4 days per decade. As a result, mega heat waves may occur unusually early in the year when compared to the historical record. This was the case in 2017.

On Friday 27 July 2018, night temperature in the Netherlands did not drop below 23.6 °C. The hottest night ever measured. An update of climate change and hot cities.

At 1.5 to 2°C global warming, long-term droughts will happen 5 to 10 times more frequent in large parts of the world. This will affect two thirds of the world population.

What sounds like a project from the future, the upcoming North Sea Wind Power Hub is an ambitious plan that has the goal of building a wind farm on an island right in the middle of the North Sea.

Forty years of television video footage of the Tour of Flanders shows strong shifts in the leaf-out and flowering of trees alongside the roads. As a result of 1.5°C warming since 1980.

In the midst of summer in Europe, we present an update of an overview posted on the ClimateChangePost in 2016. We included the results of scientific studies published in the last two years.

Current weather conditions over northern Europe are typically the conditions for wildfires to occur. Our longread articles of 2016 on Europe’s wildfire risk are as current as they were two years ago.

A large majority of Dutch Parliament agreed on a climate law to reduce the emission of green house gasses by 95% in 2050 compared to 1990 levels.

Drought conditions in the northern Mediterranean are changing, leading to fire weather conditions that have not been explored before. As a result, the frequency of extreme wildfires is increasing.

Grapes are vulnerable for frost events at bud break. Frost risk will decrease in western regions and increase in central Europe. This will reshape the distribution of grapevine varieties in Europe.

Climate change will negatively affect power generation in European countries regardless of the level of global warming. The impacts will be stronger for southern than for northern Europe.

Increasing heat levels as a result of climate change will substantially reduce labour productivity. Tropical and sub-tropical areas will be particularly affected.

An increase from 1.5 °C to 2 °C global warming already doubles the frequency of extreme heat waves over most of the globe and strongly increases the number of people affected.

The number of heavy precipitation events that can trigger landslides in central Europe will increase this century, up to 14 additional events per year in 2100


Europe in a changing climate

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