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Europe's impacts in infographics:

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Droughts and desertification »

Europe’s forests are still suffering from the 2014 - 2018 multi-year drought

In the Czech Republic, the onset of the bark beetle outbreak triggered by drought led to a sharp increase of salvage logging since 2016, and to one billion Euro of damage in agriculture in 2018.

Transport, infrastructure and building »

River flood risk of Europe’s road network highest in Germany, France and Italy

The current expected annual direct damage from large river floods to road infrastructure in Europe is about € 230 million per year. Risk hotspots are parts of Germany, France, Italy, and Scandinavia.

Forestry and peatlands »

What may happen to forestry and timber markets beyond 2100?

Global forest area is likely to increase this century, but shrink back towards its present level by 2200. Forest productivity and timber supply will continue to increase through 2200, however.

River floods »

Update 'Navigating rivers and deltas towards a sustainable future'

An update of the ‘River Basin Delta Tool’ is now online. The tool, first launched on the Climate Adaptation Summit 2021, shows effects of interventions on rivers and deltas and how to bend the trend.

Avalanches and landslides »

The future of landslides in the Pyrenees

A study on landslides in the French Central Pyrenees shows that these hazards may occur up to 4 times as often by the end of the century, under a high-end scenario of climate change.

Climate change »

Extreme European heatwaves of 2019 now several times more likely due to climate change

Without climate change, the heatwave of July 2019 in France and the Netherlands, with temperatures over 40 °C, would have been more than 10 times less likely, scientists conclude.

Previously in ClimateChangePost


The sea can contribute much more to sustainable food production than is currently the case: 12-25 per cent of the increase in all meat needed to feed 9.8 billion people by 2050.

By 2100, many European workers will very likely be affected by heat stress. In Southern Europe, 15-60 per cent of the working hours may be lost under a high-end scenario of climate change.

World’s largest agricultural research partnership seeks to increase funding to $2 billion annually to support global innovation in the pandemic recovery.

Northern Europe is warming much faster than the global mean. By mid-century, summers will last about a month longer here, and winters will become one to two months shorter, model projections show.

The probability of multiple rivers flooding at the same time in Europe is changing. This often disregarded aspect is highly relevant for the capacities of disaster recovery and insurance companies.

Higher air temperature means lower air pressure and a longer distance to take off. At Greek airports this distance has increased over the last decades by a few metres per year.

Climate change negatively affects the global economy, both directly in world regions and transnationally through foreign trade channels. Germany is relatively well off.

Climate anomalies, in terms of extreme weather events, may lead to disasters. A country’s vulnerability and exposure determines how large these anomalies have to be for a disaster to unfold.

The consequences of economic development of high-income countries are passed on to low-income countries. The climate debts the first ones owe to the latter ones have been quantified.

The oceans acidify and this affects our health in many ways. Changes include the quantity and quality of seafood, pollutants accumulating in human tissue, and natural toxins released in the air.

As a result of sea level rise, the shorelines of sandy beaches in Europe may ‘potentially’ retreat by tens to a few hundred metres between now and 2100, scientists conclude.

The consequences for Europe of doing nothing to the increase of extreme sea levels are hundreds of billions of Euros damage per year by 2100. Extra cost-effective protection reduces this risk by 95%.

Compound floods, simultaneous high water levels at the coast and in nearby rivers, have been relatively strong and frequent at times in parts of northwestern Europe. It’s not clear why.

For a number of rivers, discharge regime is shifting from snowmelt to rainfall-dominated. The number of European regions affected by multiyear drought is expected to increase as a result.

Dams are the dominant driver of changes in river flow in Sweden in the last half-century. Land use change has had a minor impact, and the impact of climate change is insignificant.

Global breadbaskets are the main regions for food production. The probability of multiple breadbasket failures at the same time has increased substantially for wheat, maize, and soybean.

More then half a century ago, the Scots tried to transform their bogs into forest, now they’ve made a 180 degrees turn. Scotland has emerged as a global leader in restoring peatlands.

Annual discharge of many European rivers has changed, but not necessarily due to climate change. In Spain, for instance, increases in irrigated areas and afforestation have played a major role.

It's not just ice melt from mountain glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica, and ocean warming that leads to sea level rise. A large contribution is water that fresh water reserves on land have lost.

Less frost days and earlier blossoming of apple trees may seem like a beneficial effect of climate change, but it isn’t. In Germany, risk of frost damages may increase up to 10% in a 2°C warmer world.


Europe in a changing climate

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