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Fresh water resources »

New: The geography of future water challenges

The geography of future water challenges shows the global water-related challenges of tomorrow, illustrated by a large number of well-designed maps and infographics. Free download.

Climate change »

Mitigating global warming can reduce strong increase record-breaking summer temperatures by 50%

On a global basis, moderate climate mitigation can reduce the probability that a summer in 2070 exceeds the historical record temperature of the past 100 years from 80% to 41%.

Coastal erosion and coastal floods »

Different ways to reach the Paris Agreement goals, different impacts for coastal management

The goals of the Paris Agreement can be reached along various trajectories of global warming, each leading to different rates of sea level rise and different impacts for coastal management.

Transport, infrastructure and building »

Future heat waves, droughts and floods in 571 European cities

More frequent and hotter heat waves in cities in southern and central Europe, more droughts in the south and more river flooding in the cities of north-western Europe, a recent assessment shows.

Health »

More people exposed to heat waves: global warming versus population growth

More people will be exposed to heat-related extremes, due to both global warming and population growth. The impact of climate change dominates over population growth, a recent study has shown.

Forestry and peatlands »

Shift in boreal forest tree species urgently needed due to climate change

A new strategy is urgently needed for boreal forests focused on the replacement of needle-leaved tree species by broad-leaved species. This would reduce fire risk and cool the boreal zone.

Previously in ClimateChangePost


The geography of future water challenges, a global hotspot analysis of water and climate challenges carried out by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, will be presented on 19 April 2018

Rising climate-related risks such as from floods and windstorms threaten affordability and coverage availability for society at large. Continuous efforts are needed to address underlying risks.

Infrastructure that ensures Europeans’ health, wealth and security will be affected by climate change. Annual damage may increase 10-fold this century, especially due to droughts and heat waves.

In Central Europe heat waves will probably occur twice as often in the coming decades compared with previous decades. For the end of this century 2-4 heat waves are expected per summer.

Both in Southern and in Northern Europe river flood peaks will decrease. In the South as a result of a decrease in total annual precipitation, in the North due to less snowmelt.

Efforts to reduce coastal flood risk have been successful: since 1900 the occurrence of very substantial loss of life (>10 000 persons) from single coastal flood events has decreased over time.

Exposure to extreme hot and humid conditions will rapidly increase throughout the 21st century. Especially in the tropics and mid-latitudes, containing half of the world’s future population.

The rate of global mean sea level rise is accelerating: from 1.1 mm/year in the period 1901-1990 to more than 3 mm/year in the last decade. For a large part due to thermal expansion of the oceans.

Unexpectedly, mushroom productivity the Mediterranean may increase towards 2100. The fruiting season may last longer due to more precipitation at the beginning and warmer weather at the end.

In Europe, areas with less heating will outweigh areas that need more cooling. Energy demand will increase, however, due to the variation across Europe of future population growth and decline.

Clear-air turbulence accounts for 24% of weather-related accidents. The volume of this turbulence may double in 50 years over North America, the North Pacific, and Europe under climate change.

Future coastal flood risk depends on the combined effect of sea level rise and storm surges, along with the effects of tides, waves and land subsidence. How this turns out is a complicated story.

Compelling evidence that the number of major river floods is increasing at a global scale is lacking. Generalizations about climate-driven changes in floods based upon previous studies are ungrounded.

State-of-the-art climate models suggest anthropogenic climate change is amplifying Europe’s north-south contrast of available fresh water resources. Water scarcity will increase in Mediterranean.

Large and uncontrolled wildfires seem to have become the ‘new normal’ as some politicians call it. Climate change is one of the drivers, science has shown, but it’s not the only one.

A feasibility study shows that the retreat of the Morteratsch Glacier in Switzerland can be slowed down by artificially produced snow, thus extending the ‘lifespan’ of this major touristic attraction.

If we do not succeed in mitigating global warming, sea level may rise up to 2 m in 2100. Ambitious climate policies are needed to avoid the most severe impacts from rising sea levels around the globe.

Wine grape production in Scotland under high-end climate change remains implausible on a commercial scale at the end of this century. It simply rains too much.

Peat soils are responsible for a significant portion of the anthropogenic CO2 and N2O emissions. Besides, drained organic soils subside due to compaction, shrinkage, erosion and oxidation.

Climate change will negatively affect cereal yields in Western Europe, a study for France has shown. Still, yields are projected to increase, thank to technological improvements in agriculture.


Europe in a changing climate

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