Viniculture »

Changing late spring frost impacts will reshape the distribution of grapevine varieties in Europe

Grapes are vulnerable for frost events at bud break. Frost risk will decrease in western regions and increase in central Europe. This will reshape the distribution of grapevine varieties in Europe.

Energy »

Reduction European power generation under 1.5°C, 2°C and 3°C warming

Climate change will negatively affect power generation in European countries regardless of the level of global warming. The impacts will be stronger for southern than for northern Europe.

Insurance and business »

Increasing heat stress will strongly reduce labour productivity worldwide

Increasing heat levels as a result of climate change will substantially reduce labour productivity. Tropical and sub-tropical areas will be particularly affected.

Climate change »

Paris Agreement may have a strong impact on future extreme heat waves

An increase from 1.5 °C to 2 °C global warming already doubles the frequency of extreme heat waves over most of the globe and strongly increases the number of people affected.

Avalanches and landslides »

Europe’s road and rail transport more often exposed to landslides this century

The number of heavy precipitation events that can trigger landslides in central Europe will increase this century, up to 14 additional events per year in 2100

Climate change »

Mitigating global warming can reduce strong increase record-breaking summer temperatures by 50%

On a global basis, moderate climate mitigation can reduce the probability that a summer in 2070 exceeds the historical record temperature of the past 100 years from 80% to 41%.

Previously in ClimateChangePost


The geography of future water challenges shows the global water-related challenges of tomorrow, illustrated by a large number of well-designed maps and infographics. Free download.

The goals of the Paris Agreement can be reached along various trajectories of global warming, each leading to different rates of sea level rise and different impacts for coastal management.

More frequent and hotter heat waves in cities in southern and central Europe, more droughts in the south and more river flooding in the cities of north-western Europe, a recent assessment shows.

The geography of future water challenges, a global hotspot analysis of water and climate challenges carried out by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, will be presented on 19 April 2018

More people will be exposed to heat-related extremes, due to both global warming and population growth. The impact of climate change dominates over population growth, a recent study has shown.

A new strategy is urgently needed for boreal forests focused on the replacement of needle-leaved tree species by broad-leaved species. This would reduce fire risk and cool the boreal zone.

Rising climate-related risks such as from floods and windstorms threaten affordability and coverage availability for society at large. Continuous efforts are needed to address underlying risks.

Infrastructure that ensures Europeans’ health, wealth and security will be affected by climate change. Annual damage may increase 10-fold this century, especially due to droughts and heat waves.

In Central Europe heat waves will probably occur twice as often in the coming decades compared with previous decades. For the end of this century 2-4 heat waves are expected per summer.

Both in Southern and in Northern Europe river flood peaks will decrease. In the South as a result of a decrease in total annual precipitation, in the North due to less snowmelt.

Efforts to reduce coastal flood risk have been successful: since 1900 the occurrence of very substantial loss of life (>10 000 persons) from single coastal flood events has decreased over time.

Exposure to extreme hot and humid conditions will rapidly increase throughout the 21st century. Especially in the tropics and mid-latitudes, containing half of the world’s future population.

The rate of global mean sea level rise is accelerating: from 1.1 mm/year in the period 1901-1990 to more than 3 mm/year in the last decade. For a large part due to thermal expansion of the oceans.

Unexpectedly, mushroom productivity the Mediterranean may increase towards 2100. The fruiting season may last longer due to more precipitation at the beginning and warmer weather at the end.

In Europe, areas with less heating will outweigh areas that need more cooling. Energy demand will increase, however, due to the variation across Europe of future population growth and decline.

Clear-air turbulence accounts for 24% of weather-related accidents. The volume of this turbulence may double in 50 years over North America, the North Pacific, and Europe under climate change.

Future coastal flood risk depends on the combined effect of sea level rise and storm surges, along with the effects of tides, waves and land subsidence. How this turns out is a complicated story.

Compelling evidence that the number of major river floods is increasing at a global scale is lacking. Generalizations about climate-driven changes in floods based upon previous studies are ungrounded.

State-of-the-art climate models suggest anthropogenic climate change is amplifying Europe’s north-south contrast of available fresh water resources. Water scarcity will increase in Mediterranean.

Large and uncontrolled wildfires seem to have become the ‘new normal’ as some politicians call it. Climate change is one of the drivers, science has shown, but it’s not the only one.


Europe in a changing climate

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