Europe's impacts in infographics:

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Avalanches and landslides »

Temperature and precipitation changes seem to trigger slope destabilization in the Alps

A high occurrence of positive temperature anomalies in the lead-up of slope failures in the Italian Alps supports the hypothesis that climate warming is destabilizing slopes at high-elevation sites.

Climate change »

Across Europe, cold extremes are warming more rapidly than hot extremes

Where hot extremes have increased by 0.33 °C per decade from 1950 to 2018, the trend for cold extremes is 0.49 °C per decade. A 50% difference!

Insurance and business »

Damage and fatalities extreme weather events in Europe on the rise

Weather disasters have increased in number and intensity in recent decades. Damage caused by extreme weather events has been on the rise. In terms of casualties the 2003 and 2010 heat waves stand out.

Energy »

The Netherlands is building the world’s largest wind turbine

This week, a wind turbine almost as high as the Eiffel Tower will be assembled at the Dutch coast. On a windy day, this turbine can produce enough electricity to supply 16,000 houses.

Biodiversity »

Marine heat waves in the Mediterranean Sea: still an exception, but the “new normal” in a few decades

Unprecedented mass mortality events, reported in previous summers and resulting from prolonged periods of high sea surface temperatures, seem to become the new standard already by 2050.

Biodiversity »

Climate change will affect biodiversity, regardless of the Paris Agreement

Biodiversity of plants and animals on earth will change. At 2 °C global warming, terrestrial ecosystems could lose on average 14% of their current local species, and 22% at 4 °C.

Previously in ClimateChangePost

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Screening on the 6th September in London: This film discusses concerns of New York citizens about the future with the hot August weather as a starting point.

Both heat stress and ozone increase mortality, and both are affected by climate change. While the total health burden of ozone will decrease by 2050, heat-related mortality will strongly increase.

River flood risk to European railways, €581 million per year in recent decades, could increase substantially: by up to 310% under a 3 °C warming scenario, according to recent estimates.

When the Mediterranean Sea warms up, hurricanes in the area are likely to become more vigorous. Their winds will be stronger, and they will lead to more intense precipitation, increasing flood risk.

Trends in burnt area in Portugal and Spain illustrate the complicated relationship between population and fire incidence. Rural abandonment means fewer fires but more fuel for extreme events.

Almost half of the variability in global maize and spring wheat yields can be explained by climate variability and climate extremes during the growing season.

The probability of facing a 1 in 100‐year event is more than doubled in 30% of the global coastlines when accounting for the dependence between storm surges and waves.

Global ocean animal biomass consistently declines with climate change from the year 1970 to 2100, on average with 5% for every 1 °C of global warming. Declines are largest at the tropics.

The number of damaged infrastructures seems to be small still: 12 out of 947 infrastructures since the 1990s. Numbers have doubled, though, between 2010 and 2018 compared with the period 2000-2010.

Human activities affect the worldwide risk of droughts since the beginning of the twentieth century, according to an analysis of observations, climate reconstructions and tree ring data.

In Poland, mortality is generally highest in winter and lowest in summer. However, heat waves may increase the number of fatalities such that summer mortality equals or exceeds winter mortality.

The experts find it plausible that sea level rise could exceed 2 m by 2100 under the business as usual scenario, more than twice the upper value put forward by the IPCC in 2014.

When rivers flood, nearby rivers often flood at the same time. The distance over which rivers flood simultaneously has increased since 1960. It far exceeds the size of individual drainage basins.

The global ocean has warmed substantially over the past century. But that’s not all. Discrete periods of extreme regional warming, called ‘marine heat waves’, have increased in frequency.

Meteorological droughts will occur more often and last longer. The increase of frequency and duration of droughts in the soil root zone will be much less, a global study shows.

From 1930 to 2010, maximum sustainable fish yield has decreased by 4.1%. The greatest losses in productivity occurred in marine regions of East Asia and Europe. Higher ocean temperatures are to blame.

Total ice volume of the world’s glaciers equals 0.4 metres of potential sea level rise. Glacier ice loss over the period 1961 to 2016 contributed about 27 millimetres to global mean sea level rise.

Global food insecurity doesn’t have to increase as a result of climate change. Crop yield losses can be small up to the 2050s, provided the right adaptation measures are implemented.

In 2050, very severe heat waves are most likely in Valletta (Malta), Madrid, Rome and Sofia. By then, the probability of an extreme heat wave to occur is relatively low only in Amsterdam.

In 1985, it was estimated that 70% of the world’s sandy shorelines were eroding. A new assessment, based on 33 years of satellite images, paints quite a different picture.

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Europe in a changing climate

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