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Coastal erosion and coastal floods »

For Europe’s high value coastal conurbations extra flood protection pays off

The consequences for Europe of doing nothing to the increase of extreme sea levels are hundreds of billions of Euros damage per year by 2100. Extra cost-effective protection reduces this risk by 95%.

River floods »

Compound flooding in northwestern Europe: river and coastal floods are sometimes linked

Compound floods, simultaneous high water levels at the coast and in nearby rivers, have been relatively strong and frequent at times in parts of northwestern Europe. It’s not clear why.

Droughts and desertification »

Multiyear droughts on the rise in European river catchments

For a number of rivers, discharge regime is shifting from snowmelt to rainfall-dominated. The number of European regions affected by multiyear drought is expected to increase as a result.

River floods »

No climate change impact on river discharge in Sweden

Dams are the dominant driver of changes in river flow in Sweden in the last half-century. Land use change has had a minor impact, and the impact of climate change is insignificant.

Agriculture and horticulture »

Risk of food production failures in different global breadbaskets at the same time has increased

Global breadbaskets are the main regions for food production. The probability of multiple breadbasket failures at the same time has increased substantially for wheat, maize, and soybean.

Forestry and peatlands »

For peat’s sake! Scotland restores its peatlands to keep carbon locked up

More then half a century ago, the Scots tried to transform their bogs into forest, now they’ve made a 180 degrees turn. Scotland has emerged as a global leader in restoring peatlands.

Previously in ClimateChangePost

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Annual discharge of many European rivers has changed, but not necessarily due to climate change. In Spain, for instance, increases in irrigated areas and afforestation have played a major role.

It's not just ice melt from mountain glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica, and ocean warming that leads to sea level rise. A large contribution is water that fresh water reserves on land have lost.

Less frost days and earlier blossoming of apple trees may seem like a beneficial effect of climate change, but it isn’t. In Germany, risk of frost damages may increase up to 10% in a 2°C warmer world.

Between 1991 and 2019 sea level rise has accelerated. The rate of sea level rise is now 1 mm per decade faster than 10 years ago.

Global health adaptation to climate change is moving in a positive direction, but at a relatively slow pace. Countries are spending more on health adaptation, though.

In poor countries, over the period 1960 to 2010, climate-driven reduction in agricultural productivity of 1% from its decennial trend has induced an increase in the emigration rate of about 4.5%.

The extra warming in 2050 due to urban expansion will be as significant as, or even stronger than, that caused by global warming, increasing extreme heat risk for billions of urban dwellers.

According to a group of experts from all continents it is a political mistake to keep on increasing fire suppression expenditure, while disregarding mitigation and adaptation.

For future global primary production, the positive impacts of higher CO2 concentrations and higher temperature at high latitudes dominate over the negative impacts of more extreme droughts.

A widespread global increase in intense lake phytoplankton blooms since the 1980s suggests that lake warming may counteract management efforts to reduce blooms by reducing nutrient loads.

Recent publications show that Europe’s summer of 2018 was exceptionally warm, with all-time temperature records set across the continent, including Scandinavia, central Europe, and the British Isles.

Large wildfires across Portugal and Spain can be classified into four types of large wildfires, depending on different combinations of heat, drought and wind that promote these fires.

When glaciers shrink or disappear, the emerging ice-free basins provide opportunities for building dams to store water and generate electricity through hydropower.

Simultaneous climate change impacts on agriculture and marine fisheries will affect tropical countries the most. They are most dependent on these food sectors but have the lowest capacity to adapt.

When permafrost thaws deeper into the soil, soil moisture can change rapidly. The wide range of effects includes less stable infrastructure, changing flood risk, and higher wildfire risk.

Drainage of peatlands has transformed large areas from former sinks into net sources of greenhouse gasses. Most of these peatlands need to be rehabilitated to stop global warming at +2 °C.

From north to south along the Spanish coastline, flood cases are more severe and damaging. The number of flood cases increases in the opposite direction. Halfway, near Málaga, flood risk is highest.

River discharge observations across Europe for the period 1960-2010 show that annual maximum peak flow has increased in northwestern Europe, and decreased in southern and eastern Europe.

The elevation of densely populated coastal zones appears to be much lower than has been assumed so far. The global impacts of sea-level rise will likely be far greater than studies so far have shown.

A proper look at flood risk shows that annual flood losses in Central Europe have not increased significantly over the past four decades if the effect of economic development is eliminated.

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Europe in a changing climate

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