Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands Netherlands

Previously in ClimateChangePost


The future of the tidal flats of the Wadden Sea, a valuable nature reserve in the Northwest of Europe, depends on the rate of sea-level rise. This rate may increase so fast that the flats will drown.

What sounds like a project from the future, the upcoming North Sea Wind Power Hub is an ambitious plan that has the goal of building a wind farm on an island right in the middle of the North Sea.

A large majority of Dutch Parliament agreed on a climate law to reduce the emission of green house gasses by 95% in 2050 compared to 1990 levels.

The Netherlands is about to get a new government. Climate change will be a spearhead and one of the Ministers will be a Minister for "Economic and Climate Affairs".

Even if the planet only warms up by 1.5 °C, the target of the Paris agreement, one-third of all Asian glaciers will have melted by 2100, according to research carried out by Dutch scientists.

Presented by Marjolijn Haasnoot of the Netherlands’ research institute Deltares and Delft University of Technology at the European Climate Change Adaptation Conference in Glasgow in June 2017.

The world’s largest rivers are not equally sensitive to climate change. The Rhine, for instance, is not that sensitive to climate change, according to a recent assessment of extreme flows.

The Dutch coast is eroding. A recent study shows that the volume of eroded dune sand increases linearly with sea level rise by little over 20 % per meter sea level rise.

For developing countries the assessment of coastal hazards is often hampered by lack of data. Dutch researchers of Deltares developed an app to use global open assess data for these assessments.

On a hot day, the city of Amsterdam in the Netherlands can be up to 5 °C warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Both climate change and urbanization will increase this urban heat island effect.

Staff of Dutch museums and monumental buildings, and climate, flood and crisis management experts shared their experiences on how to protect valuable collections and buildings in times of crises.

In response to last years’ Paris Agreement the Dutch government outlined its plan to reduce its CO2 emission to almost zero in 2050 in the Energy Agenda for the future.

A plan put forward by several Dutch organisations and companies is to afforest 100,000 acres of land in the Netherlands in the next 30 years. The purpose of this plan: more trees capture more carbon.

The sea takes sand from the Dutch coast that is replenished by depositing sand on the beaches and in the offshore. The Dutch have found a more natural way to protect their coast: the Sand Motor.

Experiences in Copenhagen, New York, London, Rotterdam and Amsterdam shared at the Adaptation Futures Conference in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, May 2016

Thermal discomfort will substantially increase in The Netherlands. This was concluded from an analysis of 4 climate change scenarios for 2050 compared to 1976 - 2005.

Flood insurance differs widely in scope and form across Europe. There seems to be little appetite for harmonization of flood insurance arrangements across the EU

What measures may be effective in reducing the urban heat island effect and cool down cities during heat waves? A comparison of recent insights from scientific studies

In a warmer future climate, Western Europe will see larger impacts from severe Autumn storms. Not only their frequency will increase, but also their intensity and the area they affect.

How much sea level rise is to be expected at the upper limit of current IPCC scenarios? This question has been dealt with for northern Europe

Until the beginning of the 1990s, there have been no significant changes in the timing of plant life cycle events in the Netherlands. During 2001-2010 the timing

During 1951–2009, the coastal area of the Netherlands has consistently become wetter compared with the inland area. Sea surface temperature was shown to have a larger influence on precipitation.

On the Rhine–Main–Danube corridor no decrease in the performance of inland waterway transport due to extreme weather events is expected till 2050.

The vulnerability of bulk cargo companies along the River Rhine to low water periods has been studied for the near and distant future.

The Port of Rotterdam (Netherlands) is an example of a seaport that has already taken steps toward adaptation. This port joined forces with

Severe hurricane-force (> 32.6 m/s) storms can cause floods in west-European coastal regions and inflict large-scale damage on infrastructure and agriculture.

At extremely low water levels, the price per tonne for inland waterway transport in the river Rhine area will almost double. These increased transport prices result in welfare losses.

Along the Holland coast an experiment is being carried out with a concentrated mega-nourishment with 20 million m3 of sand (the so-called Delfland Sand Engine).

Changes in the annual precipitation amounts, the precipitation amounts in the winter and summer halves of the year, ...

Extreme storm surge heights likely will show a small increase toward the coasts of the German Bight with stronger changes along the North Frisian Islands ...

The Netherlands has experienced a downward trend in windstorm losses in the past two decades to a record low level ...

Model results indicate that the extensive tidal flats in systems such as the Dutch Wadden Sea may slowly diminish or even disappear ...


I recommend

National plans/strategies for The Netherlands

  • Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) (2015). Climate change. Summary of the fifth IPCC-assessment and a translation to the Netherlands (text in Dutch: Klimaatverandering. Samenvatting van het vijfde IPCC-assessment en een vertaling naar Nederland). Download.
  • Sixth Netherlands’ National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2014). Download.
  • Delta Committee (2008). Working together with water. Findings of the Delta Committee. Download.
  • Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) (2010). The Netherlands in the Future. Second Sustainability Outlook. The physical living environment in The Netherlands. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on important Dutch topics

  • Agriculture and Biodiversity: Nillesen and Van Ierland (2006). Climate change scientific assessment and policy analysis. Climate adaptation in the Netherlands. Download.
  • Flood risk: RIVM (2004). Dutch dikes, and risk hikes. A thematic policy evaluation of risks of flooding in the Netherlands. Download.
  • Climate proof development of urban areas (text in Dutch). Download. 

Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Quante, M. and F. Colijn (eds), 2016. North Sea Region climate change assessment NOSCCA. Regional Climate Studies, Springer Nature, 555 pp. Download.
  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

EU funded Research Projects




Climate change scenarios

Climate change impacts and vulnerabilities

Coastal areas

Cultural-historical heritage

Droughts and water scarcity

Flash Floods



Fresh water resources



Insurance and Business

Land use

Mitigation / adaptation integrated policy

Mitigation / adaptation options and costs

Security and Crisis management

Transport, Infrastructure and Building

Urban areas