Finland Finland Finland Finland

Previously in ClimateChangePost


In the coldest parts of Europe snow-induced forest damage may increase when winters get warmer. This is due to changing characteristics of the snow load on tree crowns.

Presented by Richard Klein (Stockholm Environment Institute) at the 4th Nordic Conference on Climate Change Adaptation in Bergen, Norway, August 2016.

The prolongation and intensification of the thermal growing season offers several benefits for northern European forestry and agriculture. In southern Europe, negative impacts dominate.

The potential impacts of climate change on grassland biodiversity in Finland and potential adaptation options have been considered by focusing on grassland butterflies

How much sea level rise is to be expected at the upper limit of current IPCC scenarios? This question has been dealt with for northern Europe

In high-latitude regions of the Earth, temperatures have risen 0.6 °C per decade, twice as fast as the global average. The resulting thaw of frozen ground

By the 2020s, the main beneficiary of the warming climate appears to be Finland, where the number of good months is projected to rise by one month

Results from an analysis of the inter-annual variability of ice conditions at a coastal site in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) during the period 1927–2012 showed a significant decrease

The probability of forest fire danger days in Finland has been estimated to increase by 56-75% for 2010−2029 and 71-91% for 2080−2099.

Potential grass yield in Northern Europe is projected to increase in 2050 compared with 1960–1990, mainly as a result of increased growing temperatures.

The northernmost regions of Finland seem to have most potential for benefiting from an increasing temperature sum, but will also suffer most from increasing precipitation ...

During 2000–2030, the primary production and net carbon sequestration of Norway spruce are estimated to increase in southern Finland ...

Mean and extreme wind speeds in Northern Europe have been projected for the future periods 2046–2065 and 2081–2100 ...


I recommend

National plans/strategies for Finland

  • Finland's Sixth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2014). Download.

Reports/papers that focus on important Finnish topics

  • Arctic: ACIA ( 2004). Impacts of a warming Arctic. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Download (in parts or entire report).
  • Energy: Gabrielsen (2005). Climate change and the future Nordic electricity market - Supply, demand, trade and transmission. Download.
  • Storms: Keim et al. (2004). Spatial and temporal variability of coastal storms in the North Atlantic Basin. Download.

Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

Weblogs in Finnish


EU funded Research Projects



Climate change scenarios

Climate change impacts and vulnerabilities

Coastal areas

Droughts and water scarcity


Forest fires


Fresh water resources


Mitigation / adaptation options and costs

Transport, Infrastructure and Building

Urban areas

Cultural-historical heritage in Finland

Vulnerabilities in Finland

Archaeological heritage and wooden building

As environmental conditions of the soil change, archaeological heritage will be endangered and stability of the soil as a foundation for buildings will weaken. Wood is also sensitive to changes in humidity. Wooden buildings are typical in Finland and, therefore, measures will be required to control decay and fungi growth even without flooding problems. The old town in Rauma and the Petäjävesi wooden church on the UNESCO World Heritage List represent Nordic wooden architecture. Extreme weather phenomena such as storms and flooding have an impact, for example, on the Suomenlinna Sea Fortress also listed on the World Heritage List (1).

Adaptation to climate change leads to an increased need for safety repairs at restoration and conservation sites. Climate and energy policies, like the increasing use of renewable energy sources, and energy-saving goals, like improving energy efficiency of buildings, may also have significant effect on the cultural environment.(1).

Reindeer husbandry

Reindeer husbandry is important in Lapland, particularly in small communities. Reindeer are also of great cultural value because many of their owners are indigenous Sami people. The impacts of climate change on reindeer populations are expected to be mainly unfavourable. If winters get milder and precipitation increases, snow may be thicker and icy layers may form inside the snow cover. This would make it difficult for reindeer to dig for lichen and their need for supplementary food will increase. The northward advance of the tree line and gradual replacement of lichens with vascular plants may also affect reindeer pastures (1).

Adaptation strategies

The need to reconcile the interests of reindeer husbandry and forestry will become even more important as climate change alters the circumstances. Additional feeding of reindeer may be needed depending on the natural conditions and state of pastures (1).


The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Finland.

  1. Ministry of the Environment and Statistics Finland (2009)

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