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Presented by Gunn Persson (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute SMHI) at the 4th Nordic Conference on Climate Change Adaptation in Bergen, Norway, August 2016.

Presented by Richard Klein (Stockholm Environment Institute) at the 4th Nordic Conference on Climate Change Adaptation in Bergen, Norway, August 2016.

The prolongation and intensification of the thermal growing season offers several benefits for northern European forestry and agriculture. In southern Europe, negative impacts dominate.

Presented by Victor Blanco (University of Edinburgh, UK) at the Adaptation Futures Conference in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, May 2016

In a warmer future climate, Western Europe will see larger impacts from severe Autumn storms. Not only their frequency will increase, but also their intensity and the area they affect.

Northern Sweden is likely to be a fire-resistant region in the future climate. In contrast, southern Sweden is projected to become a more fire-prone region

How much sea level rise is to be expected at the upper limit of current IPCC scenarios? This question has been dealt with for northern Europe

In high-latitude regions of the Earth, temperatures have risen 0.6 °C per decade, twice as fast as the global average. The resulting thaw of frozen ground

By the 2020s, the main beneficiary of the warming climate appears to be Finland, where the number of good months is projected to rise by one month

The number of deaths due to cold and hot extreme temperatures attributable to climate change was estimated for Stockholm

Potential grass yield in Northern Europe is projected to increase in 2050 compared with 1960–1990, mainly as a result of increased growing temperatures.

Mean and extreme wind speeds in Northern Europe have been projected for the future periods 2046–2065 and 2081–2100 ...


I recommend

National plans/strategies for Sweden

  • Sweden's Sixth National Communication under the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2014). Download.

Reports/papers that focus on important Swedish topics

  • Arctic: ACIA ( 2004). Impacts of a warming Arctic. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Download (in parts or entire report).
  • Energy: Gabrielsen (2005). Climate change and the future Nordic electricity market - Supply, demand, trade and transmission. Download.
  • Storms: Keim et al. (2004). Spatial and temporal variability of coastal storms in the North Atlantic Basin. Download.

Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

EU funded Research Projects




Climate change scenarios

Climate change impacts and vulnerabilities

Coastal areas

Cultural-historical heritage



Forest fires


Fresh water resources

Mitigation / adaptation options and costs

Urban areas

Cultural - historical heritage Sweden

Indigenous communities are facing major economic and cultural impacts. Many Indigenous Peoples depend on hunting polar bear, walrus, seals, and caribou, herding reindeer, fishing and gathering, not only for food and to support the local economy, but also as the basis for cultural and social identity (1). For Sweden especially reindeer husbandry is an important part of the historical-cultural heritage.

Reindeer husbandry

The right to conduct reindeer husbandry in Sweden is reserved for the Sami and is founded on ancient tradition. This right is decisive for the preservation of the Sami culture and identity. There are around 3,500 reindeer-owning Sami and just over 900 reindeer herding companies in Sweden. In addition there are around 1,000 reindeer owners of non-Sami origin, for whom the Sami undertake reindeer husbandry in concession Sami villages. There are a total of around 230,000 reindeer in Sweden, although the number varies considerably from year to year (2).

Positive effects of climate change are an extension of the growing seasonand plant production increase during the summer grazing (by 20–40%) (3). Towards the end of the century, the growing season may be extended by up to 2–3 months. The lengthening of the time with no snow on the ground and the shorter winters are positive for reindeer. it is during this season that the reindeer build up their reserves of fat and protein to see them through the winter.

On the other hand, the anticipated higher temperatures in the summer can entail problems for the reindeer, as they do not like heat. A changed climate with higher temperatures and increased precipitation can result in much worse insect plagues. It may also become more difficult for the reindeer to avoid insect plagues due to the shrinking bare mountain environments and fewer patches of snow. The occurrence of parasites can increase as a consequence of a higher temperature. There is also a risk of new parasites and diseases spreading.

There appears to be an increasing risk of difficult snow conditions, with ice and frozen crusts on snow that are very difficult for the reindeer to penetrate when looking for food. An increase in the occurrence of ice and frozen crusts can result in the reindeer having poorer winter grazing, causing them to have to utilise the body fat reserves built up during summer grazing to a greater extent, with reduced fitness as a consequence (4).


The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Sweden.

  1. ACIA (2004)
  2. Moen and Danell (2003), in: Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability (2007)
  3. Danell (2007), in: Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability (2007)
  4. Moen (2006), in: Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability (2007)

Other countries about this topic