Energy Bosnia and Herzegovina
Energy in Bosnia and Herzegovina in numbers
The basic sources of primary energy in Bosnia and Herzegovina are coal and hydropower. The total energy consumption in 2005 was as follows: 45.3% coal and coke, 9.6% hydropower, 21.1% liquid fuels, 5.6% natural gas, and 20.5% wood (11). Bosnia and Herzegovina depends on imports for its energy consumption.
Opportunities Bosnia and Herzegovina
The exploitation of hydropower is less than 40% of the total usable potential, which is rather low in comparison with other European countries. The utilization degree for small hydro power plants is even lower. In 1991, there were 11 small hydro power plants, which made 4.4% of the total potential small hydropower plant capacity, i.e. 5.7% of the energy available. ... A significant part of hydropower potential suitable for construction of large hydropower plants is permanently lost due to urban, environmental and economic limitations (10).
Insufficient measurements make it impossible to estimate the real potential for wind energy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has been indicated that there is the economic potential for developing approximately 600 MW of wind-based electricity by 2020. ... Analysis of the possible wind energy utilization in selected macro-locations is just a beginning step, reflecting the perspectives of these regions for wind power generation (12). At present, there is no operational wind power plant connected to the high-voltage network.
The geothermal energy potential of Bosnia and Herzegovina is 33 MWth (13). The temperatures at known sites (50 to 85°C) are too low for producing electric power.
The use of solar energy is insignificant and it is realistic to expect that in the period until 2030 in Bosnia and Herzegovina there will not be more significant application of solar energy for the production of electrical energy (10).
There is a long tradition of biomass use in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but that use is characterized with a very low rate of utilization, mainly in rural and suburban areas as a primary source of energy for heating and cooking purposes in households and buildings. ... Biomass in Bosnia and Herzegovina totals approximately 9 % of total primary energy supply, mostly as firewood and wood waste (10).
Bosnia and Herzegovina has a good economic rationale for using manure to produce biogas. The biomass percentage in the world energy production is projected to reach between 25% and 46% prior to 2100. There is significant potential for using liquid manure from farms obtained from registered livestock in the country to produce biogas as a way proposed to mitigate climate change (10).
The current key renewable energy sources in Europe are hydropower (19.8% of electricity generated) and wind. By the 2070s, hydropower potential for the whole of Europe is expected to decline by 6%, translated into a 20 to 50% decrease around the Mediterranean, a 15 to 30% increase in northern and eastern Europe and a stable hydropower pattern for western and central Europe (1,3,4). In areas with increased precipitation and runoff, dam safety may become a problem due to more frequent and intensive flooding events (5).
It has become apparent during recent heat waves and drought periods that electricity generation in thermal power plants may be affected by increases in water temperature and water scarcity. In the case of higher water temperatures the discharge of warm cooling water into the river may be restricted if limit values for temperature are exceeded. Electricity production has already had to be reduced in various locations in Europe during very warm summers (e.g. 2003, 2005 and 2006) (5,8).
Extreme heat waves can pose a serious threat to uninterrupted electricity supplies, mainly because cooling air may be too warm and cooling water may be both scarce and too warm (9).
Climate change will impact thermoelectric power production in Europe through a combination of increased water temperatures and reduced river flow, especially during summer. In particular, thermoelectric power plants in southern and south-eastern Europe will be affected by climate change. Using a physically based hydrological and water temperature modelling framework in combination with an electricity production model, a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3–19% in Europe was shown for 2031–2060 compared with 1971-2000, depending on cooling system type and climate scenario (SRES B1 and A2) (14).
Overall, a decrease in low flows (10th percentile of daily distribution) for Europe (except Scandinavia) is projected with an average decrease of 13-15% for 2031–2060 and 16-23% for 2071-2100,compared with 1971-2000. Increases in mean summer (21 June - 20 September) water temperatures are projected of 0.8-1.0°C for 2031–2060 and 1.4-2.3°C for 2071-2100, compared with 1971-2000. Projected water temperature increases are highest in the south-western and south-eastern parts of Europe (14).
By the 22nd century, land area devoted to biofuels may increase by a factor of two to three in all parts of Europe (2).
It may become more challenging to meet energy demands during peak times due to more frequent heat waves and drought conditions (1). Strong distributional patterns are expected across Europe — with rising cooling (electricity) demand in summer in southern Europe, compared with reduced heating (energy) demand in winter in northern Europe (7).
The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Lehner et al. (2005), in: Alcamo et al. (2007)
- Metzger et al. (2004), in: Alcamo et al. (2007)
- Kirkinen et al. (2005), in: Anderson (ed.) (2007)
- Veijalainen and Vehviläinen (2006); Andréasson et al. (2006), in: Anderson (ed.) (2007)
- Anderson (ed.) (2007)
- Rothstein et al. (2006), in: Anderson (ed.) (2007)
- Alcamo et al., 2007
- EEA, JRC and WHO (2008)
- Behrens et al. (2010)
- Vukmir et al. (2009)
- EES BiH (2007), in: Vukmir et al. (2009)
- Muštović (2005), in: Vukmir et al. (2009)
- Strategic Plan and Program of FBiH Energy Sector Development (2008), in: Vukmir et al. (2009)
- Van Vliet et al. (2012)