Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia

Previously in ClimateChangePost


The number and intensity of droughts are increasing in parts of Central Europe, not due to a decrease in precipitation, but due to an increase in evaporation under higher temperatures.

In the Carpathian Region, heat wave events have become more frequent, longer, more severe and intense over the period 1961 - 2010, in particular in summer

The impact of hydrological changes on navigation conditions has been studied for the Rhine-Main-Danube corridor, one of the most important waterways in Europe ...

Climate change will substantially affect the growth of spruce and beech, but not of oak, in Central Europe ...

Wind-storm losses on a European-wide property insurance portfolio have been quantified under current and future climatic conditions ...


I recommend

National plans/strategies for Slovakia

  • Sixth National Communication of the Slovak Republic under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2014). Download.

Reports/papers that focus on important Slovakian topics


Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

Weblogs in English and Slovak

Weblogs in Slovak

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EU funded Research Projects



Climate change scenarios

Droughts and water scarcity


Fresh water resources

Mitigation / adaptation options and costs

Urban areas

Tourism Slovakia

Benefits and vulnerabilities in Slovakia

Overall, climate change could increase the touristic appeal of the central and eastern European countries. Only minor effects are expected from climate change though, as cultural tourism, which is not dependent on climate, is more important. Increasing summer temperatures will result in a positive effect for northern regions like the Baltic. However, in many regions summer tourism is still in its infancy. Among the countries that will experience positive climatic effects by 2030, Estonia (partly because of its proximity to Finland), Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Switzerland are the most dependent on tourism (1).

Positive impacts are expected for cycling tourism and water sports. Negative impacts are expected for water tourism due to the decrease in rainfall totals and their non-uniform distribution in summer. Lower located centres of ski tourism (up to the altitude of 1000 m) will be more vulnerable with less snow, irregularity in the occurrence of snow cover, and shorter skiing season. On the other hand, positive impact is expected at higher localitites (above 1200 m) with more snow, longer skiing season, and strong frost reduction (2).

Adaptation strategies

Several adaptation strategies for tourism in Slovakia have been proposed (2):

  • Supporting the development of tourism in the lowlands of Slovakia that have a high potential for the development of several activities that are less vulnerable to climate change.
  • Supporting the development of tourism in mountains that have a high potential for the development of staying and relaxation in forests, mountains and the country, and that are less vulnerable to climate change.
  • Making efforts to prolong winter season and compensate the lack of natural snow by technical snow in ski centres up to 1000 m.
  • Reorienting ski centres in lower mountains to the activities that are less vulnerable to climate change. Neither the constuction of new ski centres, nor investments in existing ski centres are recommended.


The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Slovakia.

  1. Iordache and Cebuc (2009)
  2. Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (2009)