Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia

Previously in ClimateChangePost


The number and intensity of droughts are increasing in parts of Central Europe, not due to a decrease in precipitation, but due to an increase in evaporation under higher temperatures.

In the Carpathian Region, heat wave events have become more frequent, longer, more severe and intense over the period 1961 - 2010, in particular in summer

The impact of hydrological changes on navigation conditions has been studied for the Rhine-Main-Danube corridor, one of the most important waterways in Europe ...

Climate change will substantially affect the growth of spruce and beech, but not of oak, in Central Europe ...

Wind-storm losses on a European-wide property insurance portfolio have been quantified under current and future climatic conditions ...


I recommend

National plans/strategies for Slovakia

  • Sixth National Communication of the Slovak Republic under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2014). Download.

Reports/papers that focus on important Slovakian topics


Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

Weblogs in English and Slovak

Weblogs in Slovak

  • ...

EU funded Research Projects



Climate change scenarios

Droughts and water scarcity


Fresh water resources

Mitigation / adaptation options and costs

Urban areas

Climate change Slovakia

Air temperature changes until now

During the period 1881-2008, the average annual air temperature in Slovakia increased by about 1,6⁰C (5).

In central and western Europe, both the warm and cold tails of the temperature distribution in winter warmed over the entire 20th century. … Warming of winters during 1946-1999 occurred in both the warm and cold tails for both Tmax and Tmin, with the largest warming in the cold tail for Tmin. … There is more evidence for summer warming in the first half of the century compared with the second half (2).

Precipitation changes until now

During the period 1881-2008, average annual precipitation totals in Slovakia decreased by about 3.4%. In southern Slovakia the decrease was more than 10%, in the north and northeast an increase of up to 3% was documented (5). In the period 1995-2010, a significant increase in the occurrence of extreme daily precipitation totals has been observed, resulting in a higher risk of local floods in several localities of the Slovak Republic. On the other hand local and regional droughts caused by long periods of relatively warm weather and small precipitation totals during the growing season have been recorded during the period 1989-2009 (5). Particularly strong droughts were in 1990-1994, 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2007

An increase in winter precipitation (snow) between 1951 and 2008 has been recorded in Slovakia in both the north and south regions, and this trend could continue in the future (5).

In central and western Europe, significant increasing precipitation trends over the 20th century dominate in winter for both average precipitation intensity and moderately strong events. Simultaneously, the length of dry spells generally increased insignificantly (2).

Heat wave and cold wave changes until now

In the Carpathian Region (encompassing Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Serbia), heat wave events have become more frequent, longer, more severe and intense over the period 1961 - 2010, in particular in summer in the Hungarian Plain and in Southern Romania (6). Cold wave frequency, average duration, severity, and intensity over this period, on the other hand, generally decreased in every season except autumn. In this study, a heat wave was defined as at least five consecutive days with daily maximum temperature above the long-term 90th percentile of daily maximum temperatures. Similarly, a cold wave was defined as at least five consecutive days with daily minimum temperatures below the long-term 10th percentile of daily minimum temperatures (6).

The trend analysis shows a general tendency to more frequent, longer, more severe and more intense heat wave events in every season in the entire Carpathian Region. On the other hand, the cold waves show a general tendency to less frequent, shorter, less severe, and less intense events (6).

The Carpathian Region and the Mediterranean area are the two European hotspots showing a drought frequency, duration, and severity increase in the past decades and in particular from 1990 onwards (7). When drought effects are exacerbated by heat waves or vice versa, such combination may cause devastating effects, as it happened in summer 2003 in Central Europe (8). 

Air temperature changes in the 21st century

Results from model calculations show a temperature increase in Slovakia in 2081-2100 compared to 1971-1990 of 3.8⁰C per year. For March and November respective increases of 5.2⁰C and 3.3⁰C are projected (1). If no action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, annual mean temperature in central Europe may increase up to 4-4.5°C in continental regions by the end of the 21st century (4).

It is clear that potential evaporation in the summer will significantly increase which will result in a decrease of soil humidity in southern Slovakia and a decrease of runoff in mountain areas. A dramatic increase of number of very warm days is expected (1).

In past decades heat waves (series of days with mean daily temperature above 24°C) were recorded sporadically in Slovakia (about 6 days a year). The number of such days has already increased twice or three times. In the south of the country, a further increase is expected up to about 45 such days a year by the end of this century (5).

By the end of the twenty first century, countries in central Europe will experience the same number of hot days as are currently experienced in southern Europe (3).

Precipitation changes in the 21st century

Climate change scenarios project the prolongation of drought periods and the increase in precipitation totals during short periods with cyclonal weather in summer. It is supposed that the totals of extremely heavy precipitation events (repeating more rarely than once per 50 years) will be higher than in past decades by 25-50%. Presumably the highest precipitation totals will exceed 150 mm every year and 400 mm once per 50 years (5).

Precipitation totals are expected to increase up to 30% in the north of Slovakia and in highlands by the end of the century (5).

The occurrence of snow and snow cover will not be endangered by the projected 4°C temperature increase by the end of this century at the altitude over 1200 m. Peak snow cover (new snow cover and total snow cover) can be expected more often. The risk of avalanches will certainly increase in Slovakia (5). 


The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Slovakia.

  1. Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic (2005)
  2. Moberg and Jones (2005)
  3. Beniston et al. (2007)
  4. Commission of the European Communities (2007)
  5. Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (2009)
  6. Spinoni et al. (2015)
  7. Spinoni et al. (2013), in: Spinoni et al. (2015)
  8. Fink et al. (2004); Ciais et al. (2005), both in: Spinoni et al. (2015)