Romania Romania Romania Romania

Previously in ClimateChangePost


A study for Romanian forests showed that harvesting (shorter rotations and more intense thinnings) can be seen as a chance to undergo active adaptation with respect to species composition

In the Carpathian Region, heat wave events have become more frequent, longer, more severe and intense over the period 1961 - 2010, in particular in summer

Both an index for winter wind chill and an index for summer thermal stress showed a significant upward trend over the entire country for the period 1962−2010

An analysis of discharge data for small rivers in Eastern Romania over 1950–2006 showed increasing trends

The summer of 2012 was very hot and dry in South-East Europe. From model simulations and observations it was concluded that the magnitude and frequency of heat waves have increased

On the Rhine–Main–Danube corridor no decrease in the performance of inland waterway transport due to extreme weather events is expected till 2050.

The winter season in Romania has changed substantially during 1961–2010. A statistical analysis was

The impact of hydrological changes on navigation conditions has been studied for the Rhine-Main-Danube corridor, one of the most important waterways in Europe ...


I recommend

National plans/strategies for Romania

  • Romania’s Sixth National Communication on Climate Change under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2014). Download.

Reports/papers that focus on important Romanian topics


Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

EU funded Research Projects



Climate change scenarios

Climate change impacts and vulnerabilities

Coastal areas

Droughts and water scarcity

Flash Floods


Fresh water resources

Mitigation / adaptation options and costs

Security and Crisis management

Urban areas

Biodiversity Romania

Biodiversity in Romania in numbers

In Romania about 3,700 plant species have been identified, out of which 23 are declared natural monuments, 74 are extinct species, 39 are endangered species, 171 are vulnerable species and 1253 rare species. 33.792 animal species have been identfied, out of which 33.085 invertebrates and 707 vertebrates (2).

There are three major well-differentiated relief levels: the highest is represented by the Carpathian Mountains (the highest peak is Moldoveanu at 2544 m) the middle by Sub-Carpathians, hills and plateaus and the lowest are the plains, river meadows and the Danube Delta (the youngest relief unit under permanent formation with an average height of 0.52 m) (1).

The main feature of Romania's relief components is their proportional distribution in the form of an amphitheater. The mountains stretch in the shape of an arch in central Romania and cover 31% of the country's area. The hills and plateaus which descend from them occupy 36%, and the plains and meadows, which extend towards the borders, make up the remaining 33%. Between the Carpathians and the Danube lies the Romanian Plain, the principal granary of the country. To the west stretches the Western Plain, which is crossed by many of Romania's rivers (1).

Mountain regions are covered by coniferous forests (especially spruce fir), mixture forests (beech, fir-tree, spruce fir) and beech forests. Higher peaks are covered by alpine lawns and bushes of dwarf pine, juniper, bilberry, and red bilberry. In the hills and plateaus there are broad-leaved forests, prevailing beech, common oak and durmast oak. The main forest species often met on low hills and high plains are Quercus cerris and Quercus frainetto. The steppe and silvo-steppe vegetation, which covered the areas of low humidity in Dobrogea Plateau, Romanian Plain, Moldova Plateau, Banat and Crisana Plain, has been mostly replaced by agricultural crops (2).

Danube Delta

The Danube Delta has a surface area of 580,000 ha – 2,5% of Romania's surface (the 22nd delta in the world and the 3rd delta in Europe). The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, at the end of a 2.860 km long river, is a labyrinth of water and land, made up of countless lakes, channels, islands. The Danube Delta is the largest European wetland which forms Europe's largest water purification system. The area is particularly well known for its abundance of birdlife: 312 important bird species are present in the delta. About 90 fish species are found here, including populations of sturgeon. It is also one of the last refuges for the European mink, the wildcat and the freshwater otter (1).

Vulnerabilities Romania

Climate change might be a threat for Romanian biodiversity in the following ways (2):

  • modifications of the species behavior, as a result of the stress induced on their adaptation capacity (shorter hibernation period, the modification of the behavioral physiology of the animals as a result of the hydric and thermal stress or the stress by solar radiation; the impossibility to provide the transpiration conditions at normal physiological levels, negative irreversible influences on the migratory species, disturbance of plants evapo-transpiration, essential changes in the plants rhizosphere which may lead to their extinction);
  • modification of the habitats distribution and composition as a result of the change in the species structure;
  • increase of the exotic species at the level of the actual natural habitats and the increase of their potential to become invasive;
  • modification of the distribution of the ecosystems specific to wet areas, with the possible limitation up to their extinction;
  • changes in the freshwater and marine aquatic ecosystems generated by water warming and sea level rise;
  • extinction of certain flora and fauna species.

Highest priority for conservation in Romania should be on (2):

  • The Danube Delta complex of ecosystems;
  • Low attitude, broad-leaved forests on the plains;
  • Danube River floodplain ecosystems – especially the shallow lakes;
  • Brackish water lagoons.

Adaptation strategies Romania

A selection of adaptation strategies that have been proposed (2):

  • Creation of a national monitoring system for the endangered species;
  • Management plans of the natural habitats to prevent and limit the degradation process of these habitats as a result of the climate change impact;
  • Decrease of the additional pressures which affect vulnerable species;
  • Decrease of the agricultural activities in the areas directly affected and the implementation of appropriate measures to protect the natural and semi-natural habitats close to the agricultural areas, including the identification of compensatory measures necessary for the survival of the affected population;
  • Reduce the impact of industrial activities on the underground water and air quality, by isolation with forest belts;
  • Increase forest areas by the rehabilitation of waste and other areas.


The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Romania.

  1. Ministry of Environment and Watermanagement (2005)
  2. Ministry of Environment and Forests (2010)