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Previously in ClimateChangePost


How much sea level rise is to be expected at the upper limit of current IPCC scenarios? This question has been dealt with for northern Europe

Potential grass yield in Northern Europe is projected to increase in 2050 compared with 1960–1990, mainly as a result of increased growing temperatures.

Mean and extreme wind speeds in Northern Europe have been projected for the future periods 2046–2065 and 2081–2100 ...


I recommend

National plans/strategies for Latvia

  • Latvia's Sixth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2014). Download.

Reports/papers that focus on important Latvian topics

  • Storms: Haanpää et al. (2007). Impacts of winter storm Gudrun of 7th – 9th January 2005 and measures taken in Baltic Sea Region. Download.

Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

Weblogs in Latvian

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EU funded Research Projects

Biodiversity Latvia

Vulnerabilities - Terrestrial biodiversity

There are approximately 1700 vascular plant species in the Latvian flora of which almost one third are non-indigenous species that have spread because of human activities (1).

Over the time period 1965 – 2000 the vegetation period in Latvia has increased on average by 8 days. Typically, the ratio of coniferous stands has decreased and the ratio of deciduous stands has increased over this period. Changes in the ratio of various tree species is related mainly to land-use change (natural and artificial afforestation of non-agricultural lands) and climate impact (increase of temperature and precipitation), as well as soil eutrofication. Transformation of plant and animal species and their systems occurs under the impact of three main, interconnected factors: environmental factors – human economic activities, climate fluctuations (currently, the climate warming) and environmental enrichment (eutrophication) (2).

Currently, the indicators for intensive biota transformation in Latvia are the change in the number of species and in the share of the prevailing tree species in forest stands ocurring as a result of the above mentioned environmental factors. Over the time period 1995 – 2005, the area occupied by coniferous trees has decreased by 5% (spruce by 10%, pine-trees by 3%); the area occupied by deciduous trees has increased by 12% (aspen by 52%, grey alder by 27%, black alder by 13%, birch by 6%). In recent years, the area covered by stands of broad–leaved trees has decreased: oaks by 2%, – and the more widespread broad-leaved tree species, the ash-tree – by 12% (2).

During the past decades, the biota of Latvia, and environment in general, has become more dynamic, the invasion of new species of flora and fauna occurs considerably faster, biocenosis and biotopes are changing. This process is reflected by the increase of the number of foreign species that has occured during the past decades of the 20th century. Especially adverse impacts to the economic development of the country already in the near future, may be caused by the rapid increase of the ratio of unstable forest pioneer stands (birch, aspen and grey alder) and the degradation of stable or so called climax forest stands (stands of spruce, oak and ash-tree) (2).


The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Latvia.

  1. Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development (2001)
  2. Ministry of the Environment of the Republic of Latvia (2006)