Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary

Previously in ClimateChangePost

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In the Carpathian Region, heat wave events have become more frequent, longer, more severe and intense over the period 1961 - 2010, in particular in summer

The summer of 2012 was very hot and dry in South-East Europe. From model simulations and observations it was concluded that the magnitude and frequency of heat waves have increased

On the Rhine–Main–Danube corridor no decrease in the performance of inland waterway transport due to extreme weather events is expected till 2050.

In 2010, Hungary became one of the top 5 exporters of maize in the world. Under current conditions, crop systems are mainly rain fed, and water licences are massively underexploited.

The impact of hydrological changes on navigation conditions has been studied for the Rhine-Main-Danube corridor, one of the most important waterways in Europe ...

In response to climate change soil erosion hazard is expected to increase, drought hazard is expected to become a serious problem in ...

The impacts of the simulated climate change on the air quality are rather weak for the mid-century 2041−2050 ...

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I recommend

National plans/strategies for Hungary

  • Sixth National Communication of Hungary  to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2014). Download.
  • Climate change and Hungary: mitigating the hazards and preparing for the impacts. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on important Hungarian topics

  • Lake Balaton: Somlyódy and Honti (2005). The case of Lake Balaton: how can we exercise precaution.
  • Tourism: Rátz and Vizi (2004). The impacts of global climate change on water resources and tourism: the responses of Lake Balaton and Lake Tisza. Download.

Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

Weblogs in English and Hungarian

Weblogs in Hungarian

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EU funded Research Projects

Agriculture

Aquifers

Climate change scenarios

Climate change impacts and vulnerabilities

Droughts and water scarcity

Floods

Fresh water resources

Mitigation / adaptation options and costs

Transport, Infrastructure and Building

Urban areas

Flash floods and Urban flooding Hungary

Vulnerabilities Hungary

In the Hungarian Great Plains large areas have no natural drainage (1). Excess water on the Hungarian plains and flat lands occurs when precipitation or snowmelt water cannot infiltrate into the soil (mostly due to semi-impermeable upper soil layer) and fills the depressions of the flat land. In Hungary the elimination of water damages became a task of strategic importance in the past years, due to the increasing frequency of extreme events (3).

Local damage occurs mostly due to heavy but local rainstorm that will cause high runoff, which results in high floods of local, usually small, streams, inundating villages, washing away the dams of small reservoirs, etc. High erosion or even mud avalanches may also be the result of such extreme local weather events (3).

Flash flooding is one of the most frequent hazards in Hungary (5).

Vulnerabilities Hungary - In the future

Regional climate model projections for Hungary, based on the A1B emission scenario, project for the end of this century  (1) an increased average temperature, mainly in the summer, and a higher variability of rainfall, especially in the summer and winter; (2) an increased number of tropical days; (3) an increased length of heat periods; (4) changes in the summer and winter precipitation; and (5) a slightly increased number of days with heavy rains (more than 30 mm). In response to climate change, and according to regional climate model projections for the periods of 2021–2050 and 2071–2100 compared with 1961–1990 under the IPCC A1B climate scenario (4):

  • soil erosion hazard is expected to increase;
  • drought hazard is expected to  become a serious problem in mainly the south-eastern part of the country;
  • wind erosion sensitivity is expected to follow the drought sensitivity changes in the spatial distribution of Hungary (south-eastern part), also with an increasing sensitivity, mainly caused by the soil and vegetation cover characteristics;
  • flash flood hazard is expected to increase in the Transdanubian Hills and in the Northern Mountains;
  • mass movements will show patterns similar to flash floods, but will probably not increase.

The combination of these hazards will probably show the most pronounced increase In the north-west of Hungary; in this region the actual processes are very active (4).

Adaptation strategies Hungary

In order to reduce the risk and damages that may be caused to human life and properties by catastrophes induced by extreme weather events, a government resolution was released and this ordered the establishment and operation of forecasting-warning system of emergency situations that may be caused by extreme precipitation events (3).

The solution of the management and drainage of the excess- and precipitation waters of settlements became a task that cannot be postponed. Planned management and control strategies are needed for this development work, especially in settlements where excess and precipitation waters create increasingly dangerous situations. Local water damage events of the past years indicate that the most vulnerable locations are the settlements of the Northern Middle-Mountain Ranges – mainly in the mountains Mátra, Cserehát, Zempléni and in the valley of the River Hernád. Storm-water storage options must be surveyed, also utilizing the analysis of meteorological data, and on the long term this must also be made for the flatland regions (3).

References

The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Hungary.

  1. Somlyódy and Simonffy (2004)
  2. Blanka and Mezosi (2012)
  3. Farago et al. (2010)
  4. Mezösi et al. (2013)
  5. Czigány et al. (2010), in: Mezösi et al. (2013)
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