Greece Greece Greece Greece

Previously in ClimateChangePost


Anthropogenic climate change will likely alter ecosystems in the Mediterranean this century in a way that is without precedent during the past 10,000 years.

High sea level rise may be catastrophic for the beaches of Crete. Strong erosion may require costly adaptation measures to ensure their long-term sustainability.

At the end of this century, several heat waves per year will occur in the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. The number of heat wave days will increase by 20 - 130 days per year.

Wetlands are vulnerable to changes in precipitation, evaporation, and catchment run-off. Lakes in Greece, for instance, may loose more than a third of their surface area this century.

The global area of dryland is increasing rapidly. This was shown from data over the period 1948–2005, and seems to proceed towards the end of this century.

Mediterranean mountainous areas may face a very large threat from wildfires in the twenty-first century, if socioeconomic changes leading to

Viticulture is affected by climate change, mainly by a shift in the four basic grapevine developmental stages budbreak, flowering, véraison (beginning of maturation) and full ripeness (harvest).

The Mediterranean Sea is warming in both shallow and deep waters. This warming is part of global climate trends and not a regional phenomenon.

Across the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey climate change is particularly rapid, and especially summer temperatures are expected to increase strongly.

Local water management planning and adaptation strategies need to be improved and updated in order to attain future water security ...

Climate change affects mining industry in Greece both directly and indirectly. Direct impacts: destruction of mining infrastructure ...

For agriculture in 2021–2050 compared with 1961–1990, maximum length of dry spell may increase by 10 – 20 days ...

For a basin on the isle of Crete future changes in drought characteristics have been assessed by projecting changes in flow, soil moisture and ...

The likely effects of climate change on the water resources of Greece have been investigated for 2040–2069 and 2070–2099 compared with 1961–1990 ...

In the Mediterranean most of the floods are caused by intense rainfall in a short time frame, making flash flooding the most common type of inundation ...

Data analysis for the period 1970–2100 reveals an overall decreasing precipitation trend for Crete which, combined with a temperature rise, leads to substantial reduction of water availability ...


I recommend

National plans/strategies for Greece

  • Sixth National Communication of Greece to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (2014). Download.

Reports/papers that focus on important Greek topics

  • Agriculture, forest fires: Giannakopoulos et al. (2009). Climatic changes and associated impacts in the Mediterranean resulting from a 2°C global warming. Download.
  • Coastal flood risk: Raucoules et al. (2008). Ground deformation detection of the greater area of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece) using radar interferometry techniques. Download.
  • Fresh water resources: Collins (2009). Water scarcity and drought in the Mediterranean. Download.

Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

Weblogs in Greek

  • ...

EU funded Research Projects



Climate change scenarios

Climate change impacts and vulnerabilities

Coastal areas

Cultural-historical heritage

Droughts and water scarcity

Flash Floods


Forest fires

Fresh water resources


Mitigation / adaptation options and costs

Security and Crisis management

Transport, Infrastructure and Building

Urban areas

Salt intrusion Greece


Freshwater inland resources can be contaminated due to the intrusion of saline water, both underground and on surface, increasing drought problems (e.g. experienced in 2003 in the southern region of the Venice lagoon), both for human use and agriculture production (1).

Along the Adriatic and the Mediterranean, storm surge and saltwater intrusion into aquifers threaten parts of the Croatian, Albanian, and Turkish coasts (2). Problems of saline intrusion would be further exacerbated by reductions in runoff and by increased withdrawals in response to higher demand. Excessive demand already contributes to saline intrusion problems in many coastal areas of Italy, Spain, Greece and North Africa (3).

Large areas of the Mediterranean coastline have already been affected by saline intrusion driven by abstraction of water for agriculture and public water supply, with demand for the latter being markedly increased by tourism. Across Greece, for example, it is estimated that the total surface area of aquifers impacted by seawater intrusion is about 1,500 km2 (4). The Argolid Plain in eastern Peloponnesus in Greece has undergone a rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture since the 1950s. Groundwater abstraction to support the irrigation of oranges, horticultural crops and olives has been excessive and led to the intrusion of sea water into aquifers. This phenomenon was first recorded in the early 1960s, when groundwater, pumped from certain wells, showed an increase in the concentration of chloride.On the Argolid Plain boreholes have had to be abandoned due to excessive levels of salinity found in the groundwater as a result of such salt water intrusion (5).

Salt water intrusion due to sea-level rise is mostly a very slow process that may take several centuries to reach equilibrium (6). Even small rates of groundwater pumping from coastal aquifers are expected to lead to stronger salinization of the groundwater than sea-level rise during the 21st century (7).


The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Greece.

  1. Eisenreich (2005)
  3. Aru (1996), in: Karas (2000)
  4. Daskalaki and Voudouris (2007), in: European Environment Agency (EEA) (2009)
  5. Collins (2009)
  6. Webb and Howard (2011), in: IPCC (2014)
  7. Ferguson and Gleeson (2012); Loaiciga et al. (2012), both in: IPCC (2014)