Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro Montenegro

Previously in ClimateChangePost


Anthropogenic climate change will likely alter ecosystems in the Mediterranean this century in a way that is without precedent during the past 10,000 years.


I recommend

National plans/strategies for Montenegro

Reports/papers that focus on important Montenegran topics

  • The economic impacts of climate change in Montenegro. Download.

Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

EU funded Research Projects


Climate change scenarios

Coastal areas

Droughts and water scarcity


Fresh water resources

Mitigation / adaptation options and costs

Urban areas

Forest fires Montenegro

Vulnerabilities Montenegro

In the last 15 years in Montenegro, there were 1007 major forest fires, where an area of 15,300 acres was burned, and about 500,000 m3 of timber damaged or destroyed. Especially critical were the years of 2000 and 2003, when there was an extremely high number of forest fires in the region of south-eastern Europe which destroyed large forest areas (more than 300 fires were registered in Montenegro only in 2003, when nearly 2500 ha of forest areas were burned) (1).

In Montenegro the most endangered forests with respect to forest fires are in the coastal and central region of Montenegro, where the bioclimatic conditions and high air temperature in summer period and vegetation characteristics are conducive to the emergence and development of fire. Particularly critical period for the occurrence of fire includes the months of July and August, when the intensity of rainfall is very low and the air temperature is extremely high, as well as the months of February and March - during dry and warmer winter conditions. Depending on these parameters, the area of Montenegro can be divided into:

  • the area of high fire risk - the southern and middle regions;
  • the area of increased fire risk - the south-western and western part – covered by conifers;
  • the area of moderate fire danger - oak, elm and other broadleaf stands.


The references below are cited in full in a separate map 'References'. Please click here if you are looking for the full references for Montenegro.

  1. Ministry for Spatial Planning and Environment of the Republic of Montenegro (2010)