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There is growing evidence that the rate of warming is amplified with elevation, such that high-mountain environments experience more rapid changes in temperature

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I recommend

National plans/strategies for Macedonia

Reports/papers that focus on important Macedonian topics

  • Agriculture, forest fires: Giannakopoulos et al. (2009). Climatic changes and associated impacts in the Mediterranean resulting from a 2°C global warming. Download.

Reports/papers that present a sound overview for Europe

  • Eisenreich (2005). Climate change and the European water dimension. A report to the European water directors.
  • European Environment Agency (2005). Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Europe. Download.
  • European Environment Agency, JRC and WHO (2008). Impact of Europe’s changing climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. Download.

Reports/papers that focus on specific topics, relevant for all of Europe

  • Agriculture: Rounsevell et al. (2005). Future scenarios of European agricultural land use II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Download.
  • Agriculture: Fischer et al. (2005). Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080. Download.
  • Biodiversity: Thuiller et al. (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Download.
  • Coastal erosion: Salman et al. (2004). Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. Download.
  • Droughts: Blenkinsop and Fowler (2007). Changes in European drought characteristics projected by the PRUDENCE regional climate models. Download.
  • Droughts: European Environment Agency (2009). Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Download.
  • Forestry: Seppälä et al. (2009). Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. Download.
  • Health: Kosatsky (2005). The 2003 European heat waves. Download.
  • Health: WHO (2008). Protecting health in Europe from climate change. Download.
  • Insurance and Business: Mills et al. (2005). Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Download.
  • Security and Crisis management: German Advisory Council on Global Change (2007). World in transition: Climate change as a security risk. Summary for policy-makers. Download.
  • Storms: Gardiner et al. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: Past and forthcoming impacts. Download.
  • Storms: Pinto et al. (2007). Changing European storm loss potentials under modified climate conditions according to ensemble simulations of the ECHAM5/MPI-OM1 GCM. Download.
  • Tourism: Deutsche Bank Research (2008). Climate change and tourism: Where will the journey lead? Download.

Weblogs in English and Macedonian

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Weblogs in Macedonian

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EU funded Research Projects

References Macedonia

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Eisenreich, 2005. Climate Change and the European Water Dimension. A report to the European Water Directors 2005. EU Report No. 21553.

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European Environment Agency (EEA), 2009. Water resources across Europe – confronting water scarcity and drought. Technical report No 2/2009.

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Fischer, E.M., Rajczak, J. and C. Schär, 2012. Changes in European summer temperature variability revisited. Geophysical Research Letters 39, L19702, doi:10.1029/2012GL052730.

Frei, C., Schöll, R., Fukutome, S., Schmidli, J. and P. L. Vidale, 2006. Future change of precipitation extremes in Europe: Intercomparison of scenarios from regional climate models Journal of Geophysical Research 111, D06105, doi:10.1029/2005JD005965, 2006.

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Giannakopoulos, C., Bindi, M., Moriondo, M., LeSager, P. and T. Tin, 2005. Climate change impacts in the Mediterranean resulting from a 2⁰C global temperature rise. Report for WWF, 67 pp.

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Hajat, S., Ebi, K.L., Kovats, S., Menne, B., Edwards, S. and A. Haines, 2003. The human health consequences of flooding in Europe and the implications for public health: a review of the evidence. Applied Environmental Science and Public Health 1.

Harrison, P.A., Berry, P.M., Butt, N. and M. New, 2006: Modelling climate change impacts on species’ distributions at the European scale: implications for conservation policy. Environmental Science & Policy 9: 116-128.

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Huppop, O. and K. Huppop, 2003. North Atlantic Oscillation and timing of spring migration in birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 270: 233-240.

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IPCC, 2012. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, 582 pp.

Kirilenko, A.P. and R.A. Sedjo, 2007.Climate change impacts on forestry. PNAS vol. 104, no. 50: 19697–19702.

Kjellström, E., 2004: Recent and Future Signatures of Climate Change in Europa. Ambio, 33, 193-198.

Klein Tank, A.M.G. and G.P. Können, 2003. Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe, 1946–1999. Journal of Climatology 16: 3665–3680.

Kundzewicz, Z.W., 2002. Non-structural flood protection and sustainability. Water International vol. 27, no. 1: 3–13.

Kundzewicz, Z.W., 2006. Climate change and floods. Bulletin, the Journal of the World Meteorological Organization July 2006.

Kuusisto, K., 2004. The influence of climate change to European lakes, with a special emphasis in the Balkan Region. BALWOIS 2004, Ohrid, FY Republic of Macedonia, 25-29 May 2004, 5 pp.

Lambevska, V., 2011. The impact of climate change on food production in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In: Ivanyi, Z. (ed.). The impacts of climate change on food production in the Western Balkan Region. Report Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe: 62-80.

Lelieveld, J., Hadjinicolaou, P., Kostopoulou, E., Chenoweth, J., El Maayar, M., Giannakopoulos, C., Hannides, C., Lange, M.A., Tanarhte, M., Tyrlis, E. and E. Xoplaki, 2012. Climate change and impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. Climatic Change 114: 667–687.

Lemoine, N. and K. Bohning-Gaese, 2003. Potential impact of global climate change on species richness of long-distance migrants. Conservation Biology 17: 577-586.

Marttila, V., Granholm, H., Laanikari, J., Yrjölä, T., Aalto, A., Heikinheimo, P., Honkatukia, J., Järvinen, H., Liski, J., Merivirta, R., Paunio, M., 2005. Finland’s National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland Publication 1a/2005.

Mátyás, C. (ed.), 2010. Forests and climate change in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Forests and Climate Change Working Paper 8, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 189 pp.

Meehl, G.A. and C. Tebaldi, 2004. More Intense, More Frequent, and Longer Lasting Heat Waves in the 21st Century. Science Vol. 305 (no. 5686): 994 – 997.

Menzel, A., Sparks, T.H., Estrella, N., Koch, E., Aas, A., Aha, R., Alm-Ku, K., Bissolli, P., Braslavská, O., Briede, A., Chmielewski, F.M., Crepinsek, Z., Curnel, Y., Dahl, Å., Defila, C., Donnelly, A., Filella, Y., Jatczak, K., Måge, F., Mestre, A., Nordli, Ø., Peñuelas, J., Pirinen, P., Remišová, V., Scheifinger, H., Striz, M., Susnik, A., Van Vliet, A.J.H., Wielgolaski, F.-E., Zach, S. and A. Zust, 2006. European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Global Change Biology 12: 1969–1976.

Mills, E., Roth, R.J. Jr. and E. Lecomte, 2005. Availability and affordability of insurance under climate change. A growing challenge for the U.S. Report commissioned by Ceres, 40 pp.

Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea of Italy, 2007. Fourth National Communication under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change: Italy, 325 pp.

Nicholls, N. and L. Alexander, 2007. Has the climate become more variable or extreme? Progress 1992–2006. Progress in Physical Geography 31(1): 77–87.

Osman-Elasha, B. and J. Parrotta, 2009 (eds).Future socio-economic impacts and vulnerabilities, in: Seppälä, R.,  Buck, A. and P. Katila (eds.), 2009. Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. IUFRO World Series Volume 22, Helsinki, 224 pp.

Pollner, J., Kryspin-Watson, J. and S. Nieuwejaar, 2008. Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change Adaptation in Europe and Central Asia. Report World Bank, 54 pp.

Pounds, J.A., Bustamante, M.R., Coloma, L.A., Consuegra, J.A., Fogden, M.P.L., Foster, P.N., La Marca, E., Masters, K.L., Merino-Viteri, A., Puschendorf, R., Ron, S.R., Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Still, C.J. and B. E. Young, 2006. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439: 161-167.

Randolph, S.E., 2004. Evidence that climate change has caused ‘emergence’ of tick-borne diseases in Europe? International Journal of Medical Microbiology 293:S5-S15.

Republic of Macedonia, Ministry of Environment and Physical planning, 2008. Second National Communication on Climate Change, 128 pp.

Roberts, G. (ed.), 2009. Current adaptation measures and policies, in: Seppälä, R.,  Buck, A. and P. Katila (eds.), 2009. Adaptation of forests and people to climate change. A global assessment report. IUFRO World Series Volume 22, Helsinki, 224 pp.

Rounsevell, M.D.A., Ewert, F., Reginster, I., Leemans, R. and T.R. Carter, 2005. Future scenarios of European agricultural land use: II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 107 (2-3): 117-135.

Schröter,  D., Cramer, W., Leemans, R., Prentice, C.I., Araújo, M.B., Arnell, N.W., Bondeau, A., Bugmann, H., Carter, T.R., Gracia, C.A., De la Vega-Leinert, A.C., Erhard, M., Ewert, F., Glendining, M., House, J.I., Kankaanpää, S., Klein, R.J.T., Lavorel, S., Lindner, M., Metzger, M.J., Meyer, J., Mitchell, T.D., Reginster, I., Rounsevell, M., Sabaté, S., Sitch, S., Smith, B., Smith, J., Smith, P., Sykes, M.T., Thonicke, K., Thuiller, W., Tuck, G., Zaehle, S., and B. Zierl, 2005. Ecosystem Service Supply and Vulnerability to Global Change in Europe. Science 310: 1333-1337.

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Taylor, R.G., Scanlon, B., Döll, P., Rodell, M., Van Beek, R., Wada, Y., Longuevergne, L., Leblanc, M., Famiglietti, J.S., Edmunds, M., Konikow, L., Green, T.R., Chen, J., Taniguchi, M., Bierkens, M.F.P., MacDonald, A., Fan, Y., Maxwell, R.M., Yechieli, Y., Gurdak, J.J., Allen, D.M., Shamsudduha, M., Hiscock, K., Yeh, P. J.-F., Holman, I. and H. Treidel, 2012.Ground water and climate change. Nature Climate Change.Published Online: 25 November 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1744.

Thomas, C.D., Cameron, A., Green, R.E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L.J., Collingham, Y.C., Erasmus, B.F.N., Ferreira de Siqueira, M., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., Van Jaarsveld, A.S., Midgley, G.F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huerta, M.A., Peterson, A.T., Phillips, O.L. and S. E. Williams, 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427: 145-148.

Thuiller, W., Lavorel, S., Araujo, M.B., Sykes, M.T. and I.C. Prentice, 2005. Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA 102: 8245- 8250.

UNDP, 2009. Climate change in Moldova. Socio-economic impact and policy options for adaptation. National Human Development Report 2009/2010: 224 pp.

Van Vliet, M.T.H., Yearsley, J.R., Ludwig, F., Vögele, S., Lettenmaier, D.P. and P. Kabat, 2012. Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change. Nature Climate Change 2: 676-681.

Van Vliet, M.T.H., Donnelly, C., Strömbäck, L., Capell, R. and F. Ludwig, 2015. European scale climate information services for water use sectors. Journal of Hydrology 528: 503–513. 

Ward, R.E.T., Herweijer, C., Patmore, N. and R. Muir-Wood, 2008. The role of insurers in promoting adaptation to the impacts of climate change. The Geneva Papers (33): 133–139.

Willis, K.J. and S.A. Bhagwat, 2009. Biodiversity and climate change. Science 326: 806 – 807.

World Bank Group, 2009. Adapting to climate change in Europe and Central Asia. Umbrella Report, 116 pp.

World Bank, 2010. Climate change and agriculture. Country Note for The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, www.worldbank.org/eca/climateandagriculture, 16 pp.

World Health Organization, 2007. Environment and health risks from climate change and variability in Italy.

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